Oswald Garrison Villard (1872 – 1942): Civil Rights Activist and Editor of the The Nation and the

New York Evening Post

 

Oswald Parnson Villard
Photo: CC BY-SA 3.0 de

Introduction: Oswald Garrison Villard (1872–1949), publisher of the New York Evening Post and The Nation, was the son of railroad tycoon Henry Villard and  grandson of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. He used his fortune to promote liberal causes, including woman’s suffrage, anti-imperialism, and Negro uplift. Villard originally supported Booker T. Washington, believing education was the solution to the “Negro problem,” but the Brownsville affair and Atlanta riot convinced him of the need for a more militant strategy. The “Committee for the Advancement of the Negro Race” (1906) that he envisioned became the blueprint for the NAACP. Villard funded the NAACP’s budget and provided free office space in the Evening Post building. He resigned as NAACP chairman in 1914 due to irreconcilable differences with W. E. B. Du Bois, but remained a board member until his death in 1949.

Early Years: Oswald Garrison Villard was born in 1872 in Germany. His mother was a suffragist and daughter of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. His father was a journalist and owner of the The Nation and the New York Evening Post (now the New York Post).

Villard graduated from Harvard in 1893 and began writing for the Nation and the New York Evening Post, eventually becoming publisher for both newspapers.

Villard was one of the activists brought together by Mary White Ovington to help found the NAACP. He donated space in the New York Evening Post for her to issue the call for a national conference that led to the National Negro Committee. He also wrote a pamphlet that outlined a vision for the new organization and provided initial funding.

After working as treasurer for the NAACP, he continued to work for civil rights and anti-imperialism. In 1910 he published a book on abolitionist John Brown. Villard died in 1949.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oswald_Garrison_Villard

http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/naacp/earlyyears/ExhibitObjects/OswaldGarrisonVillard.aspx 

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Oswald Garrison Villard and Daisy Gatson Bates

Oswald Garrison Villard (1872–1949), publisher of the New York Evening Post and The Nation, was the son of railroad tycoon Henry Villard and grandson of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. He used his fortune to promote liberal causes, including women’s suffrage, anti-imperialism, and Negro uplift. Villard originally supported Booker T. Washington, believing education was the solution to the “Negro problem,” but the Brownsville affair and Atlanta riot convinced him of the need for a more militant strategy. The “Committee for the Advancement of the Negro Race” (1906) he envisioned became the blueprint for the NAACP. Villard funded the NAACP’s budget and provided free office space in the Evening Post building. He resigned as NAACP chairman in 1914 due to irreconcilable differences with W. E. B. Du Bois, but remained a board member until his death in 1949.

Daisy Bates was born on November 11, 1914 in Huttig, Union County, Arkansas. Bates mother was killed while resisting the sexual advances of three local white men. Her father left the family shortly after her mother’s death and she was raised by friends of the family. In 1952 Daisy Bates was elected president of the Arkansas State Conference of NAACP branches.

Bates and her husband L.C. Bates were important figures in the Little Rock Integration Crisis in 1957. The Bates published a local black newspaper, the Arkansas State Press, which publicized violations of the US Supreme Court desegregation rulings. Bates guided and advised the nine students, known as the Little Rock Nine, when they attempted to enroll at Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The students attempts to enroll provoked a confrontation with Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus who called out the National Guard to prevent the students from enrolling.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower intervened by federalizing the Arkansas National Guard and dispatching the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock to ensure that the court orders were enforced. Their involvement in the Little Rock Crisis resulted in the loss of much advertising revenue to their newspaper and it was forced to close in 1959. In 1960 Daisy Bates moved to New York City and wrote her memoir, “The Long Shadow of Little Rock,” which won a 1988 National Book Award.

Bates moved to Washington, D.C. and worked for the Democratic National Committee. She also served in the administration of President Lyndon Baines Johnson on anti-poverty programs. In 1965 she suffered a stroke and returned to Little Rock. In 1968 she moved to the rural black community of Mitchellville, Desha County, Arkansas. She concentrated on improving the lives of her neighbors by establishing a self-help program which was responsible for new sewer systems, paved streets, a water system, and community center. Bates revived the Arkansas State Press in the 1980s.

Source: US Stamp Gallery – http://www.usstampgallery.com/search.php?st=Oswald%20Garrison%20Villard%20and%20Daisy%20Gatson%20Bates&ss=&t=&s=8&syear=&eyear=

 

 

One Response to Villard, Oswald Garrison

  1. […] rights organization were: W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, Mary White Ovington, Henry Moskowitz, Oswald Villard, and William English […]

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