Jane Edna Hunter (1882-1971) – Social Worker, Advocate for Women and Founder of the Phillis Wheatley Association
Jane Edna Hunter (nee Harris) was born on December 13, 1882 at Woodburn Farm near Pendleton, South Carolina to Harriet Millner, a free-born daughter of freed slaves, and Edward Harris, the son of a slave woman and a plantation overseer. Edward Harris died when Jane was ten years old, and her mother urged her into a loveless marriage with Edward Hunter, a man 40 years older than she was. The arrangement collapsed fourteen months after the wedding, and Jane Edna Hunter never married again.
Hunter graduated in 1905 as a trained nurse from Hampton Institute, VA, and migrated to Cleveland Ohio, arriving in 1905 as a 23 year old single African American woman. When she arrived in Cleveland she could not find decent housing or professional work because of segregation laws and practices. Her first housing was a place where prostitutes lived. With With the help of other women and $1,500, she first opened the Working Girls Home Association, a boarding home for 10 women at East 40th, north of Central Avenue. The purpose of this voluntary association was to build a safe residence for the homeless, unprotected, newly arriving African American women and working women like herself. Later that year, a 2-story building at 2265 East 40th Street was purchased and the name changed to the Phillis Wheatley Association, in honor of the late 18th-century Boston slave considered the first African American poet. The number of residents soon strained the capacity of the 23-room house. By 1917 the association purchased a 3-story building to house 75 at the northwest corner of East 40th and Central. An adjoining building, purchased in 1919, housed social and educational activities and the Stephen School of Music. The home provided a wholesome atmosphere and vocational training, often teaching service skills.
Hunter led the Association until her retirement in 1946. The PWA was the first institution designed to meet the needs of African American migrants and became, by 1927, the single largest private African American social service agency in Cleveland. The Cleveland PWA also became the largest residence for single African American women in the nation and served as the model for similar projects throughout the urban North. A member of the Cleveland Neighborhood Centers Association, through the years the Phillis Wheatley Association has functioned as a multi-service community center, serving the needs of children, youth, families, and the elderly. The association provided neighborhood social services and operated a 56-unit apartment building for seniors and disabled persons. It also managed the Sutphen School of Music, which provided music classes, and Camp, Mueller.
Hunter graduated from the Ferguson Academy and attended the Marshall Law School, passing the Ohio State bar exam in 1925. She was selected as an official in the National Association for Colored Women (NACW) and in 1930, Hunter became Director of the Phyllis Wheatley Department of the NACW. The purpose of the Department was to build a national network of Phyllis Wheatley Associations to house self-supporting, self-respecting African American women and girls and provide a meeting place for club women. These facilities were to be a “lighthouse of service” in their communities. (The Woman’s National Magazine, 1937). They epitomized the self-help and social debt response to those less fortunate.
Hunter wrote an autobiography, “A Nickel and a Prayer,” in 1940. Following her retirement, she founded the Phillis Wheatley Foundation, a scholarship fund for African American high school graduates. The foundation later established the Jane Edna Hunter Scholarship Fund in her honor. Hunter held honorary degrees from Fisk University, Allen University in Columbia, SC, and Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio.
Jane Edna Hunter died in Cleveland, Ohio on January 19, 1971.
For More Information
Hunter, Jane Edna (1940)A Nickel and a Prayer. Nashville: Parthenon Press.
Farrison, W. E. (1978). Jane Edna Hunter’s “A Nickel and a Prayer.” CLA Journal, 22(1), 6–13. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44324745
Boynton, Virginia R. “Jane Edna Harris and Black Institution Building in Ohio” in Warren R. Van Tine and Michael Dale Pierce, Builders of Ohio: A Biographical History. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2003.
Kyriacopoulos, K. A. (n.d.). Hunter, Jane Edna (1882 – 1971). BlackPast. Retrieved from http://www.blackpast.org/aah/hunter-jane-edna-1882-1971
The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History
The Phillis Wheatley Association
How to Cite this Article (APA Format): Hansan, J. (2014). Jane Edna Hunter (1882-1971) – Social worker, advocate for women and founder of the Phillis Wheatley Association. Social Welfare History Project. Retrieved from https://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/eras/great-depression/hunter-jane-edna/
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